Top 7 Python Testing Frameworks: An In-Depth Review

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Python Testing Frameworks

Python testing frameworks are widely used, and their number is growing exponentially. According to a recent survey, Python is the most wanted language globally.

Since Python app development is becoming more popular, test automation frameworks are becoming more widespread. There is no doubt that developers and testers will become a bit confused when it comes to choosing the best Python testing framework for their project. 

There are several factors to consider when choosing a Python testing framework, including the script quality of the framework, the simplicity of the test cases, and the technique for running the modules so that their flaws can be identified. 

To help you choose the ideal testing framework in Python for test automation, here is the list of the top 7 Python testing frameworks and their features and disadvantages. 

Best Python Testing Frameworks for Mastering Code Quality 

  • Pytest
  • PyUnit or UnitTest 
  • Behave
  • Robot
  • Lettuce 
  • Doctest
  • Nose2

Let’s have a detailed overview of the most popular testing framework in Python, including their strengths and weaknesses, to make your decision easier:


Among the most widely used Python testing frameworks is Pytest. It offers a more concise, readable, and user-friendly syntax than PyUnit’s built-in framework for writing tests.

Python testing framework Pytest facilitates writing concise and scalable tests for databases and user interfaces, focusing on API testing with an emphasis on databases. Aside from simple unit tests, it also covers complex functional tests.  

It offers many features and extensions to meet various testing needs while simplifying testing. In addition, it has a thriving community and a rich plugin architecture with over 800 external plugins. It is compatible with Python 3.7+ and PyPy 3, ensuring compatibility with modern Python versions.

Pytest requires only a basic understanding of Python. The only requirements are a functioning CLI, an IDE, and Python version 3.7 or newer on your desktop. 

Advantages of Pytest 

  • Pytest’s syntax is both concise and readable. Tests are easy to write and understand, reducing the time spent on setup.
  • Features like fixtures stand out in Pytest. They offer granular control over test setup and teardown, enhancing reusability.
  • Pytest boasts a rich plugin architecture. This support allows developers to customize their testing environment extensively and integrate with many tools.
  • Pytest’s reporting is top-notch. Developers receive detailed outputs, making diagnosing and addressing test failures easier. 

Disadvantages of Pytest 

  • In contrast to UnitTest, Pytest is not part of the Python standard library. Despite being straightforward, the installation is external, which requires an extra step.
  • Although Pytest is user-friendly, some advanced features might require some learning. It takes time for new users to utilize their capabilities fully.

When to opt for: 

This fully developed framework is useful if you are interested in writing unit tests, which are brief and concise tests that handle complex situations.

PyUnit (UnitTest)  

PyUnit or UnitTest is Python’s standard test automation framework for unit testing. In a lot of ways, it’s inspired by JUnit. The base class TestCase provides all assertion methods and cleanup and setup routines. All of the methods in the subclass of TestCase begin with “test”. As a result, they can be run as test cases. 

The load methods and the TestSuite class can be used to group and load tests. They can be used together to build customized test runners. As with Selenium testing with JUnit, UnitTest can generate XML reports using UnitTest-sml-reporting.

Advantages of PyUnit 

  • Among UnitTest’s main advantages is its integration with Python’s standard library. Testing is seamless because developers don’t have to install anything.
  • Those familiar with Java’s JUnit will find the syntax and design of unit test cases familiar. When these developers switch to Python, this familiarity can reduce the learning curve.

Disavantages of PyUnit 

  • Often, UnitTests require more boilerplate. The process of setting up tests, especially for simple test cases, can feel verbose at times.
  • When it comes to test parameterization and fixture management, UnitTest could offer more flexibility than PyTest.
  • Although UnitTest offers some extensibility, its plugin ecosystem could be more robust. It can sometimes be difficult to customize and integrate other tools due to this limitation. 

When to opt for: 

Choose PyUnit (UnitTest) when your project needs straightforward, basic testing without fancy features. In terms of simple projects and compatibility with other Python tools, this is the best testing framework for Python.

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Behave is one of the top Python testing frameworks that lets you run BDD (behavior-driven development) tests easily. Test scripts are written in a straightforward language and added to the running code. You can reuse previously defined steps in other scenarios by using Behave.

Like Cucumber, it specifies tests integrated during execution using the Gherkin syntax. In addition, behavior specifications define all desired code behavior, allowing previously defined steps to be reused.

Behave consists of directories with plain text feature files that look like natural language. You can run it on any Python version above 3.3. 

Advantages of Behave 

  • Behave facilitates collaboration between technical and non-technical team members through a human-readable Gherkin syntax.
  • It is easier to define and understand test cases with Gherkin scenarios since they provide a clear structure.
  • Parallel test execution in Behave improves the efficiency of large test suites.

Disadvantages of Behave 

  • New teams may find it difficult to adopt a BDD approach and understand Gherkin syntax.

When to opt for: 

Behave excels in projects that require clear and readable Gherkin syntax to define and execute tests. Behave is ideal if you want to follow Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) practices and collaborate with technical and non-technical team members.

Robot Framework 

Test automation framework Robot is used for acceptance testing, robotic process automation, and acceptance test-driven development. 

This open-source test automation framework can be used for robotic process automation (RPA). RPA allows you to define the inputs and determine whether the test automation framework works as intended.

The framework’s core is implemented in Python, but it can also be run on Jython (Java implementation of Python) and IronPython (.NET). It requires Python version 2.7.14 or higher to use it. 

Advantages of Robot Framework

  • Non-programmers can use Robot Framework because of its keyword-driven syntax. In turn, this increases engagement across the company since everyone can read and understand the tests.
  • In addition to Selenium, the framework supports easy integration with other libraries and tools.
  • The Robot Framework automatically creates detailed test documentation.

Disadvantages of Robot Framework 

  • It can take a while to master advanced features and customize test behavior, even though the syntax is simple.
  • Creating HTML reports with the Robot framework is easy, but creating highly customized reports will be challenging.
  • There is no support for parallel testing.

When to opt for: 

Python’s Robot framework is a good choice if you like simple, tabular test cases and need extensive library support for diverse protocols and technologies. The Python testing framework performs well for Python development, which requires clear test summaries in HTML reports and easy test creation without diving into complex scripting.

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The Lettuce testing framework is another Python-based BDD framework. Similar to Behave, it also uses the Cucumber framework and supports Gherkin. Aside from being easy to understand, it facilitates teamwork between non-technical and technical members. 

Lettuce is often used for black box testing. It can also be used for other tests, like server or database behavior tests.

Lettuce lacks a few features compared to more mature frameworks, so it is only suitable for small, low-risk projects. The project requires collaboration between developers, quality assurance, and managers. It is, therefore, the ideal framework for a small BDD project in a team that prioritizes cooperation among members. 

Advantages of Lettuce

  • By using this framework, you can write high-level tests in plain English.
  • It supports integration with a variety of testing tools that are available on the market.

Disadvantages of Lettuce 

  • Due to its natural language processing, it can be slower.

When to opt for:

Lettuce is an ideal testing framework in Python for projects following BDD practices and requiring integration with other testing tools.


White-box unit testing is done with Doctest, which is included in Python’s standard distribution. It checks if interactive Python sessions work as expected.

It uses selective Python capabilities such as docstrings, The Python interactive shell, and introspection (determining objects’ properties at runtime).

Doctest is also a built-in testing framework in Python, so it does not need to be installed separately; it is included with Python. 

It also allows you to write tests directly within classes, functions, and modules’ documentation strings. Documentation testing is one of the unique features of Doctest. In other words, it allows you to make sure your code documentation is up-to-date. When it comes to larger projects, which require accurate and consistent documentation, this becomes especially important.

Advantages of Doctest

  • Doctest tests are presented in natural language within the docstrings and are often very readable.
  • With Doctest, you can embed tests directly in the documentation, combining code examples and test cases in one place.

Disadvantages of Doctest 

  • It may not be suitable for testing complex scenarios within the docstrings. Doctest is suitable for testing small, straightforward examples.
  • The expected output is sensitive to minor changes in the docstring examples as it requires exact matching. A test will fail if even a single character does not match.

When to opt for: 

It’s best to use Doctest when you want lightweight testing embedded in documentation, promoting clear code examples and prioritizing simplicity over handling complex scenarios.


Nose2 is a successor to Nose, one of the most popular Python testing frameworks. For smoother testing, it enhances the PyUnit framework to boost the effectiveness of the testing process. 

Nose2 simplifies internal processes by offering a more plugin-friendly API than Nose and UnitTest. Numerous plugins are built into the framework, which automatically load upon usage. It is vital to have these plugins installed to parameterize tests, organize test fixtures efficiently, capture log messages, and generate test coverage reports.

The best thing about Nose2 is that it doesn’t require a custom importer. You only need to import (). Nose2 provides ample opportunities for collective testing that make it simple and accessible. It also supports multiple functions for writing. 

With its plugins, Nose2 can run doc and unit tests and extend PyUnit, including support, testing, discovery, decorators, execution, fixtures, and parameterization. 

Advantages of Nose2

  • In Nose2, tests are executed individually, ensuring that one test’s outcome does not affect others’ behavior.
  • Its multiprocess (MP) plugin allows parallel testing to be performed in parallel, resulting in a substantially reduced overall testing duration.
  • Nose2 provides thorough test reports that are informative and detailed. Upon executing tests, the framework generates reports highlighting successes and failures, helping you identify and diagnose code issues. 
  • It has a modular architecture with plugins. You can extend and customize the framework’s behavior by adding plugins.
  • It locates test cases from the UnitTest in your project’s codebase.TestCase subclass, reducing the need for manual configuration.

Disadavantages of Nose2

  • The learning curve in adapting to Nose2’s features and workflow might be steep if you move from the original nose framework.
  • Compared to other Python testing frameworks like Pytest, the Nose2 community and user base may not be as extensive.
  • While Nose2 has documentation, it may not be as extensive or beginner-friendly as some testing frameworks. 

When to opt for: 

Choose Nose2 when you have a large codebase and want a testing tool that discovers and runs tests automatically without much manual setup. It’s the best Python testing framework for projects where you value the convenience of test discovery and need features like parallel test execution.

Final Verdict: Which Python Framework Should I Choose for Web Testing?

Pytest emerges as a standout choice for web testing when choosing the top Python testing frameworks. With its clean syntax, fixture support, and extensive plugin ecosystem, Pytest simplifies the complexities of web application testing. Teams may, however, use different frameworks depending on their needs, such as BDD with Behave or keyword-driven testing with Robot Framework.

However, a Python test framework should be chosen based on the project’s requirements, the team’s expertise, and the testing objectives. Each framework mentioned in the list above has its strengths and weaknesses.

To make an informed decision, you need to consider the advantages and disadvantages of each framework within your project context. OpenXcell is ready to assist you in this process. Let’s connect.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is a testing framework in Python?

Python test frameworks enable developers to automate the testing of Python programs in a systematic and organized manner. The code provides a range of methods and guidelines to ensure it works properly.

What is the best Python unit testing framework?

While viewpoints may vary, Pytest is considered one of the best Python unit testing frameworks. Its clean syntax, powerful features, and extensive plugin support make it a popular choice among developers.

Which is best, Pytest or Robot framework?

The choice between Pytest and Robot Framework depends on your project’s requirements. Pytest is known for its simplicity and versatility, while Robot Framework is preferred for test automation and behavior-driven development (BDD) scenarios, offering clear tabular syntax for test cases.

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Niha Parmanandani

A dynamic content writer with a degree in Mass Communication and Journalism, she specializes in writing for web and social media.  It is her passion to play with words and keep up with technology trends. Her passion for reading drives her to create engaging, educational, and inspiring content.


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