White Box Testing: A Comprehensive Guide

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Guide to White Box Testing

White Box Testing  – Definition

The software testing in which the internal structure of the software is tested including the design and codes is known as white box testing. It enhances the design and security while also verifying the input-output flow. The other name of white box testing is clear box testing because unlike black box testing the code is available and visible.

White Box Testing

A few of the other names given to white box testing are open box testing, transparent box testing, glass testing, and code-based testing. With the help of white box testing the tester can find whether or not there are any security loopholes, if the codes are perfectly structured, the input flow in the code, checking conditional loops and testing every element individually. 

How to do White Box Testing?

The steps of  white box testing are:

Identifying what has to be tested

If the identified elements are smaller in number it is better as white box testing endorses testing every component of the selected case. When these are tested all the loopholes present are visible clearly. The testing on the features and components is repeatedly done to ensure that they work in the way they are expected. Small components are taken and tested and when the goal is achieved the next component is taken. It is also important that the testings are energy efficient, that is there is a balance between the amount of energy put to the amount of output obtained. 

Plotting on the flowgraph 

All possible and thinkable paths are plotted in the flowgraph. These paths can be for any feature, component, or module.It is done to determine the scope of the testing. 

Creating test cases for every path

After plotting the possible paths, create test cases for each path. After the test cases are made, they are executed. 


It is the execution phase of testing where the test cases are executed. The execution phases can be repeated for confirmation of the test results. 

steps of white box testing

What are the types of White Box Testing?

The different types of white box testing are:

1. Unit Testing

Unit testing is done to confirm whether a particular code is running or not, to check its functionality. It is usually done in the early steps of the process. Unit testing helps in eliminating simple errors and hence forms one of the basic steps of performance. 

2. Static Analysis

Static Analysis is used for evaluating the static parts of the code. If there are any defects or errors, static analysis helps in figuring it out. Therefore the errors are removed in the first steps of the process. 

3. Dynamic Analysis 

Following static analysis comes dynamic analysis. According to a lot of testers static and dynamic analysis should be performed together. With the help of dynamic analysis, the source code is analyzed and thereafter executed. The output is analyzed, but that does not affect the process.  

4. Statement Coverage 

One of the most important steps of the testing process is known as statement coverage. The advantages are obtained in the steps of execution. Statement coverage helps in analyzing whether the functionalities are in working order or not. Every function is executed, even if it is for once. 

5. Branch Testing Coverage

The software and web applications are not programmed in a continuous pattern. They are branched into different ways so that the process of segregation can be done effectively. Branch coverage helps in finding results quickly. The branches are verified like codes. If there are any unnatural elements in the application, it is easily found with the help of this code. 

Branch Testing Coverage

6. Security Testing 

Security is one element that has to be perfect at all times. Therefore security testings are done by most of the testers. The application has to be protected automatically hence there has to be a formulated process. Security testing has a lot of substeps. If there is any unauthorized access, the testing helps in rectifying them. If there is any risk of breach the process prevents it. 

7. Mutation Testing 

Mutation testing is usually the last segment of the process. It is basically a rechecking technique to find bugs and defects that helps in obtaining more information about the strategy to make the system stronger at regular intervals of time. 

White Box Testing Tools

The different white box testing tools are:

  • JUnit
  • Selenium
  • Cobertura
  • SonarQube
  • JaCoCo
  • Cppcheck
  • Pytest
  • Coverity

Advantages and Disadvantages of White Box Testing 

Advantages of White Box Testing

  • The test cases can be automated with ease.
  • The tests can be done without GUI.
  • Testing is more efficient. 
  • Optimization of code can be done as the hidden errors are visible. 

Disadvantages of White Box Testing

  • It is comparatively a more complex process.
  • It can be expensive.
  • The tests are usually not detailed; hence they can have errors. 
  • An experienced resource person is required for testing as it requires technical knowledge.


What is white box testing?

White box testing is used to test the internal structure of an application, find out if there are any security issues or loopholes, and detect if the paths in the code are broken. 

Why do we need white box testing?

We need white box testing because of its robust approach. It can be executed at different levels, such as system level or integration level, or unit level. The working flow of the application is identified with the help of white box testing. 

What are the different techniques used in white box testing?

The different techniques used in white box testing are- path testing, data flow testing, control flow testing, coverage, etc. 

What are the other names for white box testing?

The other names for white box testing are clear box testing, structure testing, transparent testing, and glass box testing. 

Is white box testing a manual or an automated process?

White box testing is used for testing software development and unlike black box testing, it looks at the internal structure and codes. The white box testing can be both manual or automated, depending on the tester. 

Which is a better form of testing, automated or manual testing?

Although manual testing has more coverage, automated testing gives better results. It’s is mainly because, with the help of manual testing only a specified number of permutations can be covered. However, with automated testing, a lot many cases can be achieved. 

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Bluein Christian

Content Writer with experience of 6+ years. Have experience writing content for different industries, such as travel, education, fashion, and more. A creative person by birth and by profession. She loves learning new concepts and creating useful content about them. She loves traveling and is always up for new challenges.


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